Approaches to the construction of humanitarian paradigm of national security
Deputy Head of State Administration Department, Candidate of Medical Sciences Rostislav Valikhnovskiy: it is obvious that in the next decade the State will remain a pillar of world order. This is putting forward increased demands on the ability of national security system to detect, prevent and neutralize threats in the political, economic and other spheres of society and state.
The review of literature, basic normatively legal acts of providing of national security is conducted in Ukraine. Actuality, necessity and possibility of improvement the theory of national security, is grounded on the principles of humanitarian paradigm of civilization development. The author solved this scientific task on the basis of complex analysis of the results of recent investigations and publications devoted to the issues of the external and internal environment of important national interests forming in Ukraine, the conditions of their realization.
Analysis of the works of researchers who have devoted their efforts solving the complex problems of international and national security allows us to conclude that certain theoretical and empirical basis for the study of social security systems of various nature has been developed. However, the mentioned basis is not yet united by a common methodology, a system of principles and categories, the basic concepts and the semantic field.
In particular, the challenge is to develop theoretical and methodological basis of public policy of the national security of Ukraine, which should be based on a fundamentally new model of humanitarian paradigm of civilization development. It is a model that should be built in the light of modern social knowledge of the causes, consequences, the relationship and interdependence of ideological, political, economic, social, technological, environmental and other crises, and crises of various levels, which in the opinion of the overwhelming part of the professionals, experts and analysts, have a tend to aggravate in the modern context of globalization.
The purpose of this article is to identify the key factors that lead to the formation of a new model of humanitarian paradigm of civilization development. To ground the authors' own recommendations of the need for research in the theory of national security in light of contemporary social science: the theory of compromise, which is attempted to be outlined in general lines.
Many factors allow saying: crises are increasingly turning into the process, which is self-sustaining and which resembles a vicious circle because of the uncertainty of the causes and inefficient management. The difference in the types of security threats, their sources and scale demands, respectively, the organizationally different systems to oppose them.
In particular, an analysis of recent studies and publications allows to suggest that these uncertainties can be formulated in the form of next questions:
whether globalization will be able to "tighten" the lagging economy and reduce the catastrophic gap between rich and poor countries?;
can it happen that new democracies will collapse under the pressure of different circumstances, such as the need to monitor and control financial and economic global crises, to accommodate the growing influence of religious factors on the territorial integrity?;
to which extent the countries with continuing aging of the indigenous population will be able to adapt itself for the integration into the national migrants environment?;
if other countries will be able to more openly oppose themselves to U.S. dominance and whether this will lead to undermining international stability?;
how it will affect at the world economy the political instability in energy supplier and transit countries?;
will it increase or decrease the number of states possessing nuclear weapons, and what is the likelihood of grown availability of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons to terrorists?
can the international community to adequately prepare for the catastrophic deterioration of the environment?
So there is every reason to say that if environmental, social, political, economic, cultural and other systems that provide security for the world community does not fundamentally will be harmonized, the socio-economic inequality will be a major cause of tension and unrest, which may cover large in area and population countries and regions. However, the problems generated by poverty and low quality of governance, will be breeding grounds for peak growth of terrorism, organized crime, compulsive and difficult to control mass migration process, pandemics and other threats that undermine global stability and the material and spiritual basis of human civilization.
Furthermore, the experience of appearance, developing and resolving conflicts (economic, political, ethnic, etc.) convincingly demonstrates: in the context of globalization and the collapse of world order that emerged after World War II, there was a sharp decline in controling international processes, existing systems and mechanisms for international security proved to be highly inefficient, the regional and partly global instability has sharply increased.
As for Ukraine, which is due to objective reasons retains not only its regional and global interests, but also a number of correspondent threats to their implementation; because of extremely contradictory processes of globalization and the aforementioned strategic uncertainties, is very important besides of finding the national identity, to define the national development strategy and to formulate its attitude and strategic position to assessment in relation to the global process. Obviously, there are four motivationally-driving forces and elements of this process, which have a decisive influence on the international and national security: democratization, economization, liberalization and informatization.
Democratization is the formation of the country's democratic principles, fundamental shift, primarily to the interests and needs of the population. Accordingly, it is associated with the recognition of supremacy of the constitution and laws enacted on behalf of the people, respect for human rights and freedoms of man and citizen. In recent years, spreading out is the idea of ‘softening’ the hierarchical structure of the state, developing of "network" structures, i.e. filling with a content of partnership relations, cooperation, improving cultural relations and moral-psychological climate in the country. Under these circumstances, citizens are no longer only objects of management and simple complainers, but they become "clients" of public authorities, consumers of public social services.
Accordingly, in the public policy, the hierarchy of the main subjects of national security is changed. At the first place, under normal conditions (i.e. absence of war or emergency) appears to be individual, at the second - society, and at the third - the State which becomes a primary tool for protecting the interests of the individual and society. It is clear that in the next decade the State will remain a pillar of world order. This is placing increased demands on the ability of national security system to detect, prevent and neutralize threats in the political, economic and other spheres of society and state. But any country applying for any prominent role in the world today has to follow this hierarchy.
Economization, which can be roughly interpreted as the formation of a unified (global) world economic space, make it unviable the model of national security, which is based on isolationism and integration in this space becomes the only possible way to effectively protect national interests. Therefore, rejection of integration means a waiver of full development, which becomes a key instrument for ensuring the national security. This factor determines the priority of economic instruments to ensure national security in comparison with political factors, since it is the economy is becoming a priority in world development.
Liberalization – is a process of orientation of all human activities with regards to the achievements of the humanitarian science. Obviously, these circumstances will inevitably change the nature of social relations within the country and internationally, which in this case are discussed in the context of the ability to guarantee the security of the goals, ideals, values and traditions, lifestyles and culture of individuals, families, people. The specified security ensures their normal functioning, stable functioning, development of rights and responsibilities, fundamental freedoms for all citizens without exception, in spite of race, gender, ethnicity, language and religion.
Informatization is a consequence of the introduction of modern information technologies, which compose a unified world information space. As a result, we see the intensive formation of global network society, which offers the citizens of the covered countries the access to the material and spiritual values, multiplies the intellectual and other resources. Of course, it contributes to sustainable development, achieving prosperity and security of the individual and society. However, it should be noted that information technology is not an absolute good: On the one hand, they create new opportunities for controlling and manipulating the mass consciousness in domestic politics and more effective means of interstate rivalries, and accordingly - new threats to national security. On the other hand - these technologies are already leading to the creation of virtual groups of society and its elites, who tend to focus on meeting their own corporate interests, rather than addressing national security concerns. This not only divides society, but also reduces the ability of states to effectively manage national security.
It should be emphasized that these processes are interrelated, interdependent, and their deployment in space and time are often quite controversial. Therefore, the development of national security policy of Ukraine in the XXI century - is an intellectual challenge for politicians, civil servants, diplomats, scientists, military experts, all professionals whose work is related to security.
Extremely important in the process of reforming of these systems is to put at the first place the existence of threats, risks and challenges for the ideals and values of people, their interests. This humanitarian aspect of security includes the following components: life satisfaction, legitimacy, credibility, cooperation, focus on dialogue between people, nations, cultures and civilizations, the human development index, the state of the environment (natural, socio-cultural, macro-economic, political). All this makes even more urgent rethinking of the methodological and conceptual basis of security, requires re-evaluation of resources and mechanisms for its ensuring, identification and articulation of national interests, a clear prioritization of domestic and foreign policy. The structure of theoretical and methodological basis of the updated national security policy can be represented with the following interrelated aspects:
ensuring the unity of theories of human, natural and technological security
accounting the interconnection between personal, social, state, national, regional and global security;
reflecting the interdependence of various components of international and national security (spiritual, economic, social, political, environmental and others).
With this in mind, studying the humanitarian component of the theoretical and methodological basis of the state's national security policy requires first and foremost to address the following research objectives:
to identify and systemize the main internal and external factors that contribute to the formation of a new model of humanitarian paradigm of civilizational development;
to define the basic levels of humanitarian culture of ensuring security (human, social group, society, state, international community) and identify the main challenges and threats to the safe development of each of these levels;
to identify general rules and develop a model of formation of humanitarian culture of ensuring security at different levels (individuals, social groups, society, state, international community);
to determine the specific forms of reaction (types of culture) for different models of formation of humanitarian culture of security at different levels (individuals, social groups, society, state, international community);
to build a system of blocks of humanitarian culture of national security at the present stage of development of the State;
to determine the main challenges and threats to national security resulting from the social environment, consciousness and the type of general mentality of Ukrainians, the nature of value orientations and implement a systematic analysis of sociodynamics of these challenges and threats in different social environments;
to establish the connection and interdependence of emotional-evaluative, cognitive and verbal-behavioral sides of the subject of national security in the new model of humanitarian paradigm of civilizational development;
to classify the main forms of humanitarian culture of national security, to give their typology and to evaluate the degree (measure) of prevalence of major aspects (subculture) in different social environments (social group, society, state, international community);
Conclusions and guidelines for further research.
1. Today, Ukraine needs a fundamental and working theory of ensuring security of individual citizens, people, society and the state as a whole. The most optimal and effective way to global peace and security, dialogue between civilizations, peoples and individuals is through the research and development of security culture. The last, as a key category of the new humanitarian paradigm in the XXI century, can be considered at the base for analysis of challenges, risks and threats to national interests, social ideals, core values and vital interests of society.
2. Grounding on the concept of "security culture", we can suggest that in the XXI century humanitarian components will embarrass an increasing share in the security systems both of the individual and the international community as a whole. Thus, by means of combining the efforts of government, society, and scientists from all areas it can be received a new philosophy of life, aimed at a decent understanding of the values of life. The formation and dynamics of security culture are meaningfully disclosed in conjunction of safety and security conditions through social mechanisms of adaptation to internal and external changes that are taking place. New institutionalization of the principles of the existing functions and meanings of security in the XXI century put forward the opportunity and the understanding of need for a paradigm of international humanitarian and national security. The way and the mechanism for connecting the processes of institutionalization and networking becomes a new humanitarian synthesis. Its catalyst is a new class of technology - high humanitarian technologies.
3. Understanding of Ukrainian reality today as contradiction between totalitarian and democratic paradigms do not exclude the dramatism of situation, but leads to establishment of more deep and progressive humanitarian paradigm, with its priority of value of rights, the establishment of trust between the government and the public. The significance of the study is in its contribution into enrichment of the theoretical approaches to the analysis of problems of national security, identifying the fact of dominance of paradigm of humanitarian factors in overcoming the political and socio-economic components of appearance and development of the crisis in the modern world and ensuring national security.
Taking into account the mentioned above, we can conclude that the guidelines for further research in the area of development of theoretical and methodological basis of the state national security policy of Ukraine, which would be based on a model of humanitarian paradigm of civilization development, first of all must envisage the study of the integral security problems in modern society in the context of the complexity of social systems and the problems in ensuring national security based on contemporary social science: the theory of compromise (the socio-philosophical problems of needs, opportunities and necessity of security, prosperity and dignity for all).
Full text of this Analytical Paper you can read in Ukrainian here or in Russian here.